1. Design: Elements and Principles. Design projects must apply the basic elements (line, shape, form, point, tone, texture, color, and letterform) and principles (balance, contrast, cropping, hierarchy, figure-ground, scale, proportion, and pattern) of design for function and aesthetics.
2. Built Environments: Line, Shape, and Form. Built environments include architectural, interior, landscape, and environmental design. They are important parts of communities and cultures. Technology has changed their character, which is shaped by design elements and principles that complement or contrast.
3. Built Environments: Texture and Color. Texture is the look, feel, and quality of surfaces. Color creates visual effects that complement or contrast and it affects the way people feel. Function and aesthetics play a role in the choice of color and texture for interior, environmental, and landscape designs.
4. Product Design. Product design projects include clothing and accessories, agricultural products, food products and systems, and household and industrial goods. Design elements and principles for products consider function, appearance, materials, and safety.
5. Information and Communication Design. Information design must consider cultural context and sensitivities and suitability for the target audience. Promotional designs include web sites, company logos, brochures, signs, and billboards.